Publishing Models

Note – this page is still under construction  – so please bear with us and check back later.

Different Publishing Models

Publishing models



Plan S

What is Plan S?  Why did Plan S become important? Who is involved?

statements below are from:


Open Access is Foundational to the Scientific Enterprise

Universality is a fundamental principle of science (the term “science” as used here includes the humanities): only results that can be discussed, challenged, and, where  appropriate, tested and reproduced by others qualify as scientific. Science, as an institution of organised criticism,  can therefore only function properly if research results are made openly available to the community so that they can be submitted to the test and scrutiny of other researchers. Furthermore, new research builds on established results from previous research. The chain, whereby new scientific discoveries are built on previously established results, can only work optimally if all research results are made openly available to the scientific community.

Publication paywalls are withholding a substantial amount of research results from a large fraction of the scientific community and from society as a whole. This constitutes an absolute anomaly, which hinders the scientific  enterprise in its very foundations and hampers its uptake by society. Monetising the access to new and existing research results is profoundly at odds with the ethos of science (Merton, 1973). There is no longer any justification for this state of affairs to prevail and the subscription-based model of scientific publishing, including its so-called  ‘hybrid’ variants, should therefore be terminated. In the 21st century, science publishers should provide a service to help researchers disseminate their results. They may be paid fair  value for the services they are providing, but no science should be locked behind paywalls!

On the occasion of the launch of cOAlition S, this preamble has been simultaneously published by the Frontiers Blog, Frontiers in Neuroscience, PLOS Biology, PLOS Medicine, and Science Europe

Download the preamble

On 4 September 2018, a group of national research funding organisations, with the support of the European Commission and the European Research Council (ERC), announced the launch of cOAlition S, an initiative to make full and immediate Open Access to research publications a reality. It is built around Plan S, which consists of one target and 10 principles.

cOAlition S signals the commitment to implement the necessary measures to fulfil its main principle:

“With effect from 2021, all scholarly publications on the results from research funded by public or private grants provided by national, regional and international research councils and funding bodies, must be published in Open Access Journals, on Open Access Platforms, or made immediately available through Open Access Repositories without embargo.”

The initiative was born from the cooperation between the Heads of the participating Research Funding Organisations, Marc Schiltz the President of Science Europe, and Robert-Jan Smits, previously the Open Access Envoy of the European Commission. It also drew on significant input from the Scientific Council of the ERC.

cOAlition S funders (a group of national research funders, European and international organisations and charitable foundations) have agreed to implement the 10 principles of Plan S in a coordinated way, together with the European Commission and the ERC. Other research funders from across the world, both public and private, are invited to join cOAlition S.

There are now many articles about Plan S:

But – some important recent criticism:

Assoc Prof Siouxsie Wiles, MNZM

Academic publishing is a broken mess


Open Access

Springer Open

We are happy to announce that a new free resource for book authors is now available. The OAPEN Open Access Books Toolkit is an online resource suitable for authors in any discipline, anywhere in the world, who want to find out more about open access book publishing.

We are proud to have helped develop this toolkit together with OAPEN* and other organisations, and hope that you will find it useful.

Visit the toolkit


There are 30 articles on topics such as:

  • What is open access?
  • How to choose a publisher
  • Copyright and choosing a licence
  • Peer review for open access books
  • Finding funding

The toolkit is easy to use and understand, with tips available for the different stages of the research lifecycle. Alongside the articles, you can find FAQs, a glossary, keywords and myth busters.


OAPEN Open Access Books Toolkit

*The OAPEN Foundation is a not-for-profit organisation that works with publishers worldwide to build a quality-controlled collection of open access books through the OAPEN Library and the Directory of Open Access Books.

For authors

The OAPEN Open Access Books Toolkit aims to help book authors to better understand open access book publishing and to increase trust in open access books. You will be able to find relevant articles on open access book publishing following the research lifecycle, by browsing frequently asked questions or by searching with keywords.

The OAPEN Open Access Books Toolkit is governed by a global team of stakeholders representing the research community, publishers, open access organisations, funders and research support. This resource strives to be an authoritative, credible and stakeholder-agnostic resource for users worldwide. To enable continuous updates and credibility, the toolkit is governed by an Editorial Advisory Board and chaired by OAPEN. More information can be found on the toolkit website.

The OA Effect 2020
Want more impact for your research?
Publish an open access book with us to get a wider and more diverse readership for more real-world impact. Find out more.
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Springer author resources
Many other free author resources are available to you in our open access books hub: from blogs to FAQs, videos and an author guide.
Visit the hub
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Funding support service
See if open access funding is available to you with our free support service. We can help you discover and apply for funding to cover the open access fee.
Check funding


Hybrid Models



Peer Review



Open Peer Review

For a recent summary, see The open peer review experiment in Educational Philosophy and Theory (EPAT):

In 2016 EPAT started experimenting with open peer review for articles that were part of collective writing projects. The first article was ‘Toward a Philosophy of Academic Publishing’ (Peters et al., 2016) that emerged from The Editors’ Collective based around the development of a journal ecosystem comprising a number of journals in order to:

  • develop an experimental and innovative approach to academic publishing;

  • explore the philosophy, history, political and legal background to academic publishing;

  • build a groundwork to educate scholars regarding important contemporary issues in academic publishing; and,

  • encourage more equitable collaborations across journals and editors.


Part of this process also aimed at experimenting with collective writing, re-examining expert peer review, and promoting greater recognition and discussion of academic subjectivity in the process of academic writing.

EPAT follows a strict anonymous double-blind peer review system for all 150 articles annually submitted with the exception of a small number of articles that are part of collective writing projects for which EPAT uses an open review system and are presented as ‘EPAT Collective Writing Project’ or PESA Executive Collective Writing Project’.

To cite:  Michael A Peters , Susanne Brighouse , Marek Tesar , Sean Sturm & Liz Jackson (2020): The open peer review experiment in EducationalPhilosophyandTheory (EPAT), Educational Philosophy and Theory, DOI: 10.1080/00131857.2020.1846519